Happy Holidays!

Last year around this time of year I posted and update to my Pre-Upgrade/audit script. Keeping with tradition, I have another one for you this year dear readers. I have tried to acknowledge sources that I borrowed,and I admit I could have commented more. Let me know if you have questions or concerns. As always use with caution, and try it on a test farm first.


Copy the script into a text editor and save it to one of the servers in your SharePoint farm as infoscript.ps1.

Launch the SharePoint management shell (using the “Run as Administrator” option).

In the SharePoint management shell change your directory to the directory to which you copied the Info-script.
Type .Infoscript.ps1

Follow the prompts and the script should output a text file with whatever name you assigned. Copy that file and mail it back to Rackspace.

Optionally the script may ask you if you would like to create an easier to read HTML version of the report. Read the warning prior to answering that question. Your farm’s information will be sent to an outside web service for conversion to HTML and that service is not controlled or monitored by the Author.

The text file is in a format known as Markdown which can be viewed and edited by a variety of tools freely available on the internet.

add-pssnapin microsoft.sharepoint.powershell -ea 0

$outfile = Read-Host "Please enter the path and name you would like for the output file (ex. C:tempInfoOutput.txt)"
Function WarningCheck
Param ($warninglimit,$warningct,$warningmsg,$altmsg)
if ($warningct -ge $warninglimit)
Write-Output "`n ### $($warningmsg) ### "
if ($altmsg -ne $null)
Write-Output "`n ### $($altmsg) ### "
$altmsg = $null

Function UpperBound
Param ($gtlimit,$compinput,$warning,$unit)
if ($gtlimit -lt $compinput)
Write-Output $($compinput,$unit,$warning)

Write-Output $($compinput,$unit)

Function FarmBuild
Write-Output `n"##SharePoint Farm Build number is $($Build.Major).$($Build.Minor).$($Build.Build).$($Build.Revision)"
Write-Output `n"##Installed SKUs"

ForEach($sku in ($(get-spfarm).Products))
$product=$(switch ($sku)
default {"unknown version"}
"84902853-59F6-4B20-BC7C-DE4F419FEFAD" {"Project Server 2010 Trial"}
"ED21638F-97FF-4A65-AD9B-6889B93065E2" {"Project Server 2010"}
"BC4C1C97-9013-4033-A0DD-9DC9E6D6C887" {"Search Server 2010 Trial"}
"08460AA2-A176-442C-BDCA-26928704D80B" {"Search Server 2010"}
"BEED1F75-C398-4447-AEF1-E66E1F0DF91E" {"SharePoint Foundation 2010"}
"1328E89E-7EC8-4F7E-809E-7E945796E511" {"Search Server Express 2010"}
"B2C0B444-3914-4ACB-A0B8-7CF50A8F7AA0" {"SharePoint Server 2010 Standard Trial"}
"3FDFBCC8-B3E4-4482-91FA-122C6432805C" {"SharePoint Server 2010 Standard"}
"88BED06D-8C6B-4E62-AB01-546D6005FE97" {"SharePoint Server 2010 Enterprise Trial"}
"D5595F62-449B-4061-B0B2-0CBAD410BB51" {"SharePoint Server 2010 Enterprise"}
"926E4E17-087B-47D1-8BD7-91A394BC6196" {"Office Web Applications 2010"}
"35466B1A-B17B-4DFB-A703-F74E2A1F5F5E" {"Project Server 2013"}
"BC7BAF08-4D97-462C-8411-341052402E71" {"Project Server 2013 Preview"}
"9FF54EBC-8C12-47D7-854F-3865D4BE8118" {"SharePoint Foundation 2013"}
"C5D855EE-F32B-4A1C-97A8-F0A28CE02F9C" {"SharePoint Server 2013 Standard"}
"B7D84C2B-0754-49E4-B7BE-7EE321DCE0A9" {"SharePoint Server 2013 Enterprise"}
"D6B57A0D-AE69-4A3E-B031-1F993EE52EDC" {"Microsoft Office Web Apps Server 2013"}
} )

Write-Output "####$($product) ($sku)"
If ($product -match "Project")
{Write-Output "MS Project can complicate the migration process"}
ElseIf ($product -match "Web Applications 2010")
{Write-Output "SharePoint 2013 requires a separate server or farm for Office Web Applications"}


Function UserID
$scriptuser = whoami
Write-Output `n"##InfoScript was run under account name $($scriptuser)"

Function ServersInFarm
Write-Output `n"##Servers in farm"
Write-Output "###Plus upgrade status and version number (version is just for comparison)"
$servers=Get-SPServer | Where-Object { $_.role -ne "invalid" }
Write-Output `n"| Name | Role | Needs Upgrade? | Version |"
Write-Output "| :----| :---- | :----: | ----:|"
ForEach ($server in $servers)
Write-Output "| $($server.Name) | $($server.Role) | $($server.NeedsUpgrade) | $($server.Version) |"

Function ShowCurrentErrors
Write-Output `n"##Known Errors and Warnings"
$keyPath = "HKLM:HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESOFTWAREMicrosoftShared ToolsWeb Server Extensions$($build.Major).$($build.Minor)WSS"
$centralAdminInfo= Get-ItemProperty -Path $keyPath -Name CentralAdministrationURL
$listName = "Review Problems and Solutions"
$centralAdmin= Get-SPWeb $centralAdminURL
$problemList = $centralAdmin.Lists[$listName]
$problemItems = $problemList.GetItems() | where-object {$_['Severity'] -ne "4 - Success"}
Write-Output `n"| Severity | Error or Warning description|"
Write-Output "| :----| :---- |"
ForEach ($Item in $problemItems){
Write-Output "| $($itemXml.row.ows_HealthReportSeverity) | $($Item.Title) | "

Function WebAppsInFarm
Write-Output `n"##Web Apps in Farm"
Write-Output "###And if they are using claims auth or not"
$webapps=Get-SPWebApplication -includecentraladministration
Write-Output `n"| Name | URL (Default) | Claims Authenticated? | Databases |"
Write-Output "| :----| :---- | :----: |:----|"
ForEach ($webapp in $webapps)
$contentdbs=get-spcontentdatabase -webapplication $webapp|select name
ForEach ($name in $

Write-Output "| $($webapp.DisplayName) | $($webapp.URL) | $($webapp.UseClaimsAuthentication) | $($namelist) |"

$WebAppWarning = "Microsoft Recommends no more than 25 Web Applications in a Farm this farm has $($webapps.Count)"
WarningCheck -warninglimit 25 -warningct $webapps.Count -warningmsg $WebAppWarning

Function ManagedAccountInfo
Write-Output `n"##Managed Accounts"
Write-Output `n"| Username | Password Expiration | Automatically Change? | Change Schedule |"
Write-Output "| :----| :---- | :----: | :---- |"
ForEach ($account in $managedaccounts)
Write-Output "| $($account.UserName) | $($account.PasswordExpiration) | $($account.AutomaticChange) | $($account.ChangeSchedule) |"

Function AppPoolInfo
Write-Output `n"##Service Application and App Pools"
$contentaccess= New-Object Microsoft.Office.Server.Search.Administration.content $(Get-SPEnterpriseSearchServiceApplication)
Write-Output `n"| Name | Type | Application Pool | Process Account |"
Write-Output "| :----| :---- | :---- | :---- |"
ForEach ($serviceapp in $serviceapps)
Write-Output "| $($serviceapp.DisplayName) | $($serviceapp.TypeName) | $($serviceapp.ApplicationPool.Name) | $($serviceapp.ApplicationPool.ProcessAccountName) |"
Write-Output "| Search Service Application | | **Crawl Account** | $($contentaccess.DefaultGatheringAccount) |"

Function LangPackList
Write-Output `n"##Language Packs"
Write-Output `n"| Language Name | Language Tag | LCID | "
Write-Output "| :---- | ---- | ----:|"
$centraladmin=Get-SPWebApplication -includecentraladministration | Where-Object {$_.IsAdministrationWebApplication} | Select-Object -ExpandProperty Url
$site=Get-SPSite $centraladmin
$installedLanguages = $web.RegionalSettings.InstalledLanguages

ForEach ($language in $installedLanguages)
Write-Output "| $($language.DisplayName) | $($language.LanguageTag) | $($language.LCID) |"

Function ManagedPathList
Write-Output `n"##Managed Paths"
Write-Output `n"| Web Application | Name | Type |"
Write-Output "| :---- | :---- | :---- |"
ForEach ($pathapp in $pathapps)
ForEach ($mangpath in $mangpaths)
Write-Output "| $($pathapp.URL) | $($mangpath.Name) | $($mangpath.Type) |"

Function SolutionsInFarm
Write-Output `n"##Solutions in Farm"
$solutions = Get-SPSolution | select Displayname, deployed, DeployedWebApplications
Write-Output `n"| Name | Deployed? | Web Applications |"
Write-Output "| :---- | :----: | :---- |"
ForEach ($solution in $solutions)
write-output "| $($solution.DisplayName) | $($solution.Deployed) | $($solution.DeployedWebApplications) |"

Function ContentDBInfo
$dbsizelimit = 199999
$scsizlimit = 199999
Write-Output `n"##Sizes of Databases and Site Collections by Web Application"
Write-Output "###Site Collection sizes are very rough estimates"
$contentdbs=get-spdatabase|Where-Object{$_.WebApplication -ne $null}
Write-Output `n"| Web Application | DB name and Site Collection URL | Size in Megabytes |"
Write-Output "| :---- |:---- | :---- | ----:|"
ForEach ($contentdb in $contentdbs)
$dbszcomp= $(UpperBound -gtlimit $dbsizelimit -compinput $($contentdb.DiskSizeRequired/1MB) -warning "(Too Large)" -unit "MB")
Write-Output "| **$($ContentDB.WebApplication.URL)** | **$($contentdb.Name)** | **$($dbszcomp)** |"
$totalContentDB= ($totalContentDB + $($contentdb.DiskSizeRequired/1MB))
ForEach ($sitecollection in $contentdb.Sites)
$scszcomp= $(UpperBound -gtlimit $scsizlimit -compinput $("{0:N2}" -f $($sitecollection.Usage.Storage/1MB))-warning "**(Too Large)**" -unit "MB")
Write-Output "| | $($sitecollection.URL) | ~$($scszcomp) |"
Write-Output `n"####Total Size of Content Databases $($totalContentDB) MB"

Function AppDBInfo
Write-Output `n"##Application Database sizes"
$databases=Get-SPDatabase|Where-Object{$_.Type -ne "Content Database"}
Write-Output `n"| Database Name | Datasize in Megabytes |"
Write-Output "| :---- | ----: |"
ForEach ($database in $databases)
Write-Output "| $($database.Name) | $($database.DiskSizeRequired/1MB) MB |"
$totalServAppDB= ($totalServAppDB + $($database.DiskSizeRequired/1MB))
Write-Output `n"####Total Size of Service Application and Config Databases $($totalServAppDB) MB"

Function LargeListList
$listwarning = 4000
$listupperlimit = 4000
Write-Output `n"##Lists containing $($listwarning) or more items."
$listenum = Get-SPWebApplication | Get-SPSite -Limit all | Get-SPWeb -Limit all
Write-Output `n"| List URL | Item Count"
Write-Output "| :---- |----:|"
ForEach ($list in $listenum.Lists)
If ($list.ItemCount -gt $listwarning)
$listcomp= $(UpperBound -gtlimit $listupperlimit -compinput $($list.ItemCount))
Write-Output "| $($list.ParentWeb.URL)/$($list.RootFolder.URL) | $($listcomp)|"

Function AAMInfo
Write-Output `n"##Alternate Access Mappings"
Write-Output `n"| Incoming URL | Zone | Public URL |"
Write-Output "| :---- | :----: | :---- |"
ForEach ($AAM in $AAMS)
Write-Output "| $($AAM.IncomingURL) | $($AAM.Zone) | $($AAM.PublicURL) |"

Function FeaturesInFarm

Write-Output `n"##Features in Farm"
$features=Get-SPFeature|Sort-Object ID
Write-Output `n"| Display Name | Id Number | Compatibility Level | Scope ||"
Write-Output "| :---- | :---- | :----: | :---- | ----:|"
ForEach ($feature in $features)
$FeatureSource=$(switch ($
default {"**Custom**"}
"001f4bd7-746d-403b-aa09-a6cc43de7942" {""}
"001f4bd7-746d-403b-aa09-a6cc43de7999" {""}
"00bfea71-1c5e-4a24-b310-ba51c3eb7a57" {""}
"00bfea71-1e1d-4562-b56a-f05371bb0115" {""}
"00bfea71-2062-426c-90bf-714c59600103" {""}
"00bfea71-2d77-4a75-9fca-76516689e21a" {""}
"00bfea71-3a1d-41d3-a0ee-651d11570120" {""}
"00bfea71-4ea5-48d4-a4ad-305cf7030140" {""}
"00bfea71-4ea5-48d4-a4ad-7ea5c011abe5" {""}
"00bfea71-513d-4ca0-96c2-6a47775c0119" {""}
"00bfea71-52d4-45b3-b544-b1c71b620109" {""}
"00bfea71-5932-4f9c-ad71-1557e5751100" {""}
"00bfea71-6a49-43fa-b535-d15c05500108" {""}
"00bfea71-7e6d-4186-9ba8-c047ac750105" {""}
"00bfea71-9549-43f8-b978-e47e54a10600" {""}
"00bfea71-a83e-497e-9ba0-7a5c597d0107" {""}
"00bfea71-c796-4402-9f2f-0eb9a6e71b18" {""}
"00bfea71-d1ce-42de-9c63-a44004ce0104" {""}
"00bfea71-d8fe-4fec-8dad-01c19a6e4053" {""}
"00bfea71-dbd7-4f72-b8cb-da7ac0440130" {""}
"00bfea71-de22-43b2-a848-c05709900100" {""}
"00bfea71-e717-4e80-aa17-d0c71b360101" {""}
"00bfea71-eb8a-40b1-80c7-506be7590102" {""}
"00bfea71-ec85-4903-972d-ebe475780106" {""}
"00bfea71-f381-423d-b9d1-da7a54c50110" {""}
"00bfea71-f600-43f6-a895-40c0de7b0117" {""}
"0125140f-7123-4657-b70a-db9aa1f209e5" {""}
"013a0db9-1607-4c42-8f71-08d821d395c2" {""}
"02464c6a-9d07-4f30-ba04-e9035cf54392" {""}
"034947cc-c424-47cd-a8d1-6014f0e36925" {""}
"03509cfb-8b2f-4f46-a4c9-8316d1e62a4b" {""}
"03b0a3dc-93dd-4c68-943e-7ec56e65ed4d" {""}
"04a98ac6-82d5-4e01-80ea-c0b7d9699d94" {""}
"05891451-f0c4-4d4e-81b1-0dabd840bad4" {""}
"063c26fa-3ccc-4180-8a84-b6f98e991df3" {""}
"065c78be-5231-477e-a972-14177cc5b3c7" {""}
"068bc832-4951-11dc-8314-0800200c9a66" {""}
"068f8656-bea6-4d60-a5fa-7f077f8f5c20" {""}
"071de60d-4b02-4076-b001-b456e93146fe" {""}
"073232a0-1868-4323-a144-50de99c70efc" {""}
"0806d127-06e6-447a-980e-2e90b03101b8" {""}
"08386d3d-7cc0-486b-a730-3b4cfe1b5509" {""}
"08585e12-4762-4cc9-842a-a8d7b074bdb7" {""}
"0867298a-70e0-425f-85df-7f8bd9e06f15" {""}
"08ee8de1-8135-4ef9-87cb-a4944f542ba3" {""}
"09fe98f3-3324-4747-97e5-916a28a0c6c0" {""}
"0a0b2e8f-e48e-4367-923b-33bb86c1b398" {""}
"0ac11793-9c2f-4cac-8f22-33f93fac18f2" {""}
"0af5989a-3aea-4519-8ab0-85d91abe39ff" {""}
"0b07a7f4-8bb8-4ec0-a31b-115732b9584d" {""}
"0be49fe9-9bc9-409d-abf9-702753bd878d" {""}
"0c504a5c-bcea-4376-b05e-cbca5ced7b4f" {""}
"0c8a9a47-22a9-4798-82f1-00e62a96006e" {""}
"0d1c50f7-0309-431c-adfb-b777d5473a65" {""}
"0ea1c3b6-6ac0-44aa-9f3f-05e8dbe6d70b" {""}
"0ee1129f-a2f3-41a9-9e9c-c7ee619a8c33" {""}
"0f121a23-c6bc-400f-87e4-e6bbddf6916d" {""}
"0faf7d1b-95b1-4053-b4e2-19fd5c9bbc88" {""}
"10bdac29-a21a-47d9-9dff-90c7cae1301e" {""}
"10f73b29-5779-46b3-85a8-4817a6e9a6c2" {""}
"12e4f16b-8b04-42d2-90f2-aef1cc0b65d9" {""}
"14173c38-5e2d-4887-8134-60f9df889bad" {""}
"14aafd3a-fcb9-4bb7-9ad7-d8e36b663bbd" {""}
"151d22d9-95a8-4904-a0a3-22e4db85d1e0" {""}
"15845762-4ec4-4606-8993-1c0512a98680" {""}
"15a572c6-e545-4d32-897a-bab6f5846e18" {""}
"1663ee19-e6ab-4d47-be1b-adeb27cfd9d2" {""}
"17415b1d-5339-42f9-a10b-3fef756b84d1" {""}
"184c82e7-7eb1-4384-8e8c-62720ef397a0" {""}
"192efa95-e50c-475e-87ab-361cede5dd7f" {""}
"19f5f68e-1b92-4a02-b04d-61810ead0409" {""}
"1a8251a0-47ab-453d-95d4-07d7ca4f8166" {""}
"1b811cfe-8c78-4982-aad7-e5c112e397d1" {""}
"1c6a572c-1b58-49ab-b5db-75caf50692e6" {""}
"1cc4b32c-299b-41aa-9770-67715ea05f25" {""}
"1dbf6063-d809-45ea-9203-d3ba4a64f86d" {""}
"1dfd85c5-feff-489f-a71f-9322f8b13902" {""}
"1eb6a0c1-5f08-4672-b96f-16845c2448c6" {""}
"1ec2c859-e9cb-4d79-9b2b-ea8df09ede22" {""}
"1fce0577-1f58-4fc2-a996-6c4bcf59eeed" {""}
"20477d83-8bdb-414e-964b-080637f7d99b" {""}
"22a9ef51-737b-4ff2-9346-694633fe4416" {""}
"23330bdb-b83e-4e09-8770-8155aa5e87fd" {""}
"239650e3-ee0b-44a0-a22a-48292402b8d8" {""}
"250042b9-1aad-4b56-a8a6-69d9fe1c8c2c" {""}
"2510d73f-7109-4ccc-8a1c-314894deeb3a" {""}
"26676156-91a0-49f7-87aa-37b1d5f0c4d0" {""}
"28101b19-b896-44f4-9264-db028f307a62" {""}
"29d85c25-170c-4df9-a641-12db0b9d4130" {""}
"29ea7495-fca1-4dc6-8ac1-500c247a036e" {""}
"2ac1da39-c101-475c-8601-122bc36e3d67" {""}
"2b03956c-9271-4d1c-868a-07df2971ed30" {""}
"2c63df2b-ceab-42c6-aeff-b3968162d4b1" {""}
"2dd8788b-0e6b-4893-b4c0-73523ac261b1" {""}
"2e030413-c4ff-41a4-8ee0-f6688950b34a" {""}
"2ed1c45e-a73b-4779-ae81-1524e4de467a" {""}
"2fa4db13-4109-4a1d-b47c-c7991d4cc934" {""}
"2fbbe552-72ac-11dc-8314-0800200c9a66" {""}
"2fcd5f8a-26b7-4a6a-9755-918566dba90a" {""}
"306936fd-9806-4478-80d1-7e397bfa6474" {""}
"319d8f70-eb3a-4b44-9c79-2087a87799d6" {""}
"32ff5455-8967-469a-b486-f8eaf0d902f9" {""}
"334dfc83-8655-48a1-b79d-68b7f6c63222" {""}
"34339dc9-dec4-4256-b44a-b30ff2991a64" {""}
"345ff4f9-f706-41e1-92bc-3f0ec2d9f6ea" {""}
"35f680d4-b0de-4818-8373-ee0fca092526" {""}
"365356ee-6c88-4cf1-92b8-fa94a8b8c118" {""}
"372b999f-0807-4427-82dc-7756ae73cb74" {""}
"38969baa-3590-4635-81a4-2049d982adfa" {""}
"397942ec-14bf-490e-a983-95b87d0d29d1" {""}
"3992d4ab-fa9e-4791-9158-5ee32178e88a" {""}
"39d18bbf-6e0f-4321-8f16-4e3b51212393" {""}
"39dd29fb-b6f5-4697-b526-4d38de4893e5" {""}
"3a027b18-36e4-4005-9473-dd73e6756a73" {""}
"3a11d8ef-641e-4c79-b4d9-be3b17f9607c" {""}
"3a4ce811-6fe0-4e97-a6ae-675470282cf2" {""}
"3bae86a2-776d-499d-9db8-fa4cdc7884f8" {""}
"3bc0c1e1-b7d5-4e82-afd7-9f7e59b60409" {""}
"3c577815-7658-4d4f-a347-cfbb370700a7" {""}
"3cb475e7-4e87-45eb-a1f3-db96ad7cf313" {""}
"3d25bd73-7cd4-4425-b8fb-8899977f73de" {""}
"3d433d02-cf49-4975-81b4-aede31e16edf" {""}
"3d4ea296-0b35-4a08-b2bf-f0a8cabd1d7f" {""}
"3d7415e4-61ba-4669-8d78-213d374d9825" {""}
"3d8210e9-1e89-4f12-98ef-643995339ed4" {""}
"3f59333f-4ce1-406d-8a97-9ecb0ff0337f" {""}
"409d2feb-3afb-4642-9462-f7f426a0f3e9" {""}
"415780bf-f710-4e2c-b7b0-b463c7992ef0" {""}
"41baa678-ad62-41ef-87e6-62c8917fc0ad" {""}
"41bfb21c-0447-4c97-bc62-0b07bec262a1" {""}
"41dfb393-9eb6-4fe4-af77-28e4afce8cdc" {""}
"41e1d4bf-b1a2-47f7-ab80-d5d6cbba3092" {""}
"4248e21f-a816-4c88-8cab-79d82201da7b" {""}
"4326e7fc-f35a-4b0f-927c-36264b0a4cf0" {""}
"43f41342-1a37-4372-8ca0-b44d881e4434" {""}
"4446ee9b-227c-4f1a-897d-d78ecdd6a824" {""}
"4750c984-7721-4feb-be61-c660c6190d43" {""}
"481333e1-a246-4d89-afab-d18c6fe344ce" {""}
"48a243cb-7b16-4b5a-b1b5-07b809b43f47" {""}
"48ac883d-e32e-4fd6-8499-3408add91b53" {""}
"48c33d5d-acff-4400-a684-351c2beda865" {""}
"49571cd1-b6a1-43a3-bf75-955acc79c8d8" {""}
"4aec7207-0d02-4f4f-aa07-b370199cd0c7" {""}
"4bcccd62-dcaf-46dc-a7d4-e38277ef33f4" {""}
"4c42ab64-55af-4c7c-986a-ac216a6e0c0e" {""}
"4cc8aab8-5af0-45d7-a170-169ea583866e" {""}
"4ddc5942-98b0-4d70-9f7f-17acfec010e5" {""}
"4e7276bc-e7ab-4951-9c4b-a74d44205c32" {""}
"4f56f9fa-51a0-420c-b707-63ecbb494db1" {""}
"5025492c-dae2-4c00-8f34-cd08f7c7c294" {""}
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"412c7903-14f8-480a-8e98-3c5817906f70" {"SP2010"}
"5709298b-1876-4686-b257-f101a923f58d" {"SP2010"}
"08570f0f-6163-4255-9826-f8c41dad74bd" {"SP2010"}
"ab2b7011-492c-4487-beb7-42d7a7f33cd1" {"SP2010"}
"7c939ea0-196e-4759-ad06-8bc2a64ed4e5" {"SP2010"}
"095f7b90-f808-40a8-8e41-1483906e8fae" {"SP2010"}
"6f88b617-b0ed-484d-80fc-df6f6f2b1a11" {"SP2010"}
"893627d9-b5ef-482d-a3bf-2a605175ac36" {"SP2010"}
"8dfaf93d-e23c-4471-9347-07368668ddaf" {"SP2010"}
"3aac9d1a-ebcb-412d-92e5-b394acfc8ca9" {"SP2010"}
"93eeb8e3-a860-479b-835c-80f11005013e" {"SP2010"}
"841a0715-b009-468e-af78-62ec0ad2231e" {"SP2010"}
"fb67f269-fd1d-4f9a-af0b-50f5755e19d7" {"SP2010"}
"cfc6eb4f-b5a9-4c11-b214-00dd22c7e7b5" {"SP2010"}
"738250ba-9327-4dc0-813a-a76928ba1842" {"SP2010"}
"e8389ec7-70fd-4179-a1c4-6fcb4342d7a0" {"SP2010-SSRS"}
"5f2e3537-91b5-4341-86ff-90c6a2f99aae" {"SP2010-SSRS"}
"c769801e-2387-47ef-a810-2d292d4cb05d" {"SP2010-SSRS"}
"6bcbccc3-ff47-47d3-9468-572bf2ab9657" {"SP2010-SSRS"}
"00057002-c978-11da-ba52-00042350e42e" {"SP2010"}
"00057005-c978-11da-ba52-00042350e42e" {"SP2010"}
"fcef4757-bc3f-42c0-8a37-a09e010fcd57" {"SP2010"}
"eba21329-10fb-411c-9a28-62ec10a95446" {"SP2010"}
"47c03bc9-aac7-447d-aac4-33c495c96eea" {"SP2010"}
"e744cdf1-146e-4136-ad37-cc6a4fa16c6b" {"SP2010"}
"ae3d9093-2103-4155-a582-b7d6a566ecf3" {"SP2010"}
"9bf095db-11a4-4568-b92e-e23db80a8777" {"SP2010"}

Write-Output "| $($feature.DisplayName) | $($feature.ID) | $($feature.CompatibilityLevel) | $($feature.Scope) | $FeatureSource |"
If ($feature.ID -match "75a0fea7")
$Fab40Warning="There are $($fabcount) feature(s) installed that are part of a template collection known as the 'Fab 40'. These may cause upgrade/migration issues."
WarningCheck -warninglimit 1 -warningct $fabcount -warningmsg $Fab40Warning

Function TemplatesInFarm
Write-Output `n"##Templates in Farm"
Write-Output `n"| Name | Title | Id | Compatibility Level | Custom |"
Write-Output "| :---- | :---- | :---- | :----: | :---- |"
ForEach ($template in $templates)
Write-Output "| $($template.Name) | $($template.Title) | $($template.LocaleId) | $($template.CompatibilityLevel) | `t $($template.Custom)"

Function TemplatesUsedInFarm
Write-Output `n"##Templates USED in farm by web"
Write-Host -foregroundcolor yellow "The next step in this script will list every web (site or subsite)
in your farm along with the template used by that web.
If you have a large number of sites it might take some time to complete
and may slow farm performance temporarily.

Answering No to this question only skips this section."
$continue = Read-Host "Would you like to continue? (y/N)"
if($continue -eq "Y")
$webs=Get-Spsite -limit all | Get-SPWeb -limit all
Write-Output `n"| URL | Template ID | Template |"
Write-Output "| :---- | :----: | :---- |"
ForEach ($web in $webs)
Write-Output "| $($web.URL) | $($web.WebTemplateID) | `t $($web.WebTemplate)"

Function ConvertFrom-Markdown
<# .SYNOPSIS Converts Markdown formatted text to HTML. .DESCRIPTION Converts Markdown formatted text to HTML using the Github API. Output is "flavored" depending on the chosen mode. The default output flavor is 'Markdown' and includes Syntax highlighting and Github stylesheets. Based on the Ruby version by Brett Terpstra: About Markdown: .EXAMPLE ConvertFrom-Markdown -InputObject (Get-Content -Raw) .EXAMPLE Get-Content -Raw | ConvertFrom-Markdown | clip.exe .EXAMPLE dir *.md | % {gc $_ -Raw | ConvertFrom-Markdown | Out-File -FilePath "$($_.Name.TrimEnd(".md")).html"} #>
$URL = ""

Foreach ($item in $InputObject)

$object = New-Object -TypeName psobject
$object | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name 'text' -Value ($item | Out-String)
$object | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name 'mode' -Value 'markdown'

$response = Invoke-WebRequest -Method Post -Uri $url -Body ($object | ConvertTo-Json)

if ($response.StatusCode -eq "200")

$HtmlOutput = @"


“@ Write-Output $HtmlOutput } else { “Error: $($response.StatusCode)” } } } End { #$objects.count } } Function OutputRedirect { FarmBuild UserID ServersInFarm ShowCurrentErrors WebAppsInFarm ManagedAccountInfo AppPoolInfo LangPackList ManagedPathList SolutionsInFarm ContentDBInfo AppDBInfo LargeListList AAMInfo FeaturesInFarm TemplatesInFarm TemplatesUsedInFarm } OutputRedirect|Out-File -width 200 $OutFile If ([INT]$(Get-Host).Version.major -gt 2) { Write-Host -foregroundcolor yellow `n”The default output file is a text file that uses the Markdown format ( This next step will convert it to a nicely readable HTML file, but it will send your data to an online API for processing. If you don’t need the formatted document, your server does not have access to the internet, or if you consider this a security risk answer with anything besides a Y and no data will be sent. If you answer with a Y the html document will be generated in the same folder you specified for the text output.” $continue = Read-Host “Would you like to continue with generating the HTML version of the document? (y/N)” if($continue -eq “Y”) { $outother=Get-Item $outfile|ForEach-Object { $_.FullName -replace $_.Extension } Get-Content $outfile -RAW |ConvertFrom-Markdown | Out-File -FilePath “$outother.html” } }


Migrating, in-house, to the Cloud and otherwise

“Moving to the cloud” is a hot topic right now, but it is important to make sure the move is being done for reasons that make sense for your organization. First “The Cloud” can mean a few things in this context. The most familiar to most people is Office 365, but there are also options such as dedicated hosting and building a “private cloud” for many of your IT assets that can function in a manner similar to on-premise installations.

For our purposes I will focus on the Office 365 option and in the next installment we will talk about the next buzzword after CLOUD, namely HYBRID.

To be fair, I took most of this article from an email I sent to a customer who had some questions about migrating to the cloud, and it really has very little to do with the cloud. There is a reason for that. The cloud is a new way of doing things, but it isn’t always a better way of doing things. Some basic rules apply and sometimes we forget them. I will also point out some things about an in house migration to a newer version of SharePoint.

Tips/Tricks on how to prepare for migration and what NOT to do

The summary of all of the points below could be a simple as, “Don’t move junk and fix past mistakes.”

  1. Consider your target audiences and authentication

  • SharePoint online is not a good candidate for Public Internet sites where you don’t want to require users to be authenticated before gaining access.

  • SharePoint Online is intended for Intranet and Extranet sites where information is not available to the general public, only authenticate users.

    • Users can be given accounts on Office 365 that have no connection to their business logins OR

    • Office 365 can be Federated with your local domain so that they can use the same login in the internal network and with SharePoint Online.

  1. Review the structure and governance of the current farm.

  • Flag, and if possible, delete or archive, unneeded content.

  • Work with stakeholders to plan any needed rearrangement of content. Often the way SharePoint grows is not the optimal way to arrange content. Particular things to look for:

    • Dividing or combining content into separate sites or site collections. This can be to improve navigation, permissions, or in the case of on-premise environments to improve database storage sizes.

    • Review and document permissions.

      • Consider simplifying permissions by arranging content by users who need it rather than by static categories. Custom permissions, in particular item level permissions. can have a negative impact on performance.

      • Review and document parties responsible for maintaining permissions, creating/deleting content and sites for all areas.

  1. Review solution packages (WSPs),tools, features and data integrations used with SharePoint currently.

  • Solution Packages cannot be deployed for SharePoint Online.

  • Some Standard features available to SharePoint on-premise may not be or are not available to SharePoint Online (SQL Reporting Services, Visio Services, and Business Connectivity Services, for example.)

  • Data pulled from external systems (particularly through Business Connectivity Services) may not work with SharePoint online or may reworking of their processes.

  1. If at all possible, do at least one “test” migration to look at the content in its new home and look for functional issues.

  • Document any issues and any solutions found for them.

  • Document any changes made to the content or structure of data in the test migration.

  • Invite stakeholders from different areas to preview the “new” farm and give feedback

  1. For SharePoint online, strongly consider a third party tool like Sharegate, Metalogix, or Avepoint for the migration itself. Otherwise content will have to be manually moved through regular uploads. This results in losing a significant amount of metadata and all permissions. There is no database move or attach option available natively.

  2. For on-premise migrations/upgrades there is no in-place upgrade option, building a new farm and attaching copies of you content and service application databases is the most common method but third party tools can be very helpful in this case as well if there is a significant need to restructure content.

Pros/Cons for SharePoint On-Premise or SharePoint Online SharePoint 2016

The Pros of moving to SharePoint Oniine are much the same as any cloud offering. The servers and infrastructure are maintained for you. The product is continually kept up to date. Costs are more predictable, etc. Microsoft is working quickly to get value added to the cloud options so you will see new features here first.

The Cons are actually part of the Pros in some cases. SharePoint Online has been constantly and somewhat rapidly evolving. Some customers are not comfortable with features appearing or being removed with no ability to control the timeline. Microsoft maintains the servers and infrastructure for you, but as a result you are not able to install custom code. Some features are not available (some noted above) making SharePoint online awkward for certain workloads.

What’s new?

Minrole and Services for 2016

This article will just be a jumping off point for a larger discussion of MinRole and how it works in SharePoint 2016.  This is just a quick listing of each Role and what services are automatically defined for each. There are ways around this of course to have server that are not constrained by these roles, but there are a lot of recommendations encapsulated in these roles.

Like I said, details later!


Service Application WFE Search Distributed Cache Single Server
Access Database Service 2010
Access Services
App Management Service
Business Data Connectivity Service
Claims to Windows Token Service
Distributed Cache
Document Conversions Launcher Service
Document Conversions Load Balancer Service
Lotus Notes Connector
Machine Translation Service
Managed Metadata Web Service
Microsoft SharePoint Foundation Sandboxed Code Service
Microsoft SharePoint Foundation Subscription Settings Service
Microsoft SharePoint Foundation Workflow Timer Service
Microsoft SharePoint Insights
PerformancePoint Service
PowerPoint Conversion Service
Project Server Application Service
Request Management
Search Query and Site Settings Service
Secure Store Service
User Profile Service
Visio Graphics Service
Word Automation Services
Work Management Service

A New Look and a New Post.

2016 is almost here, both the year and the SharePoint 2016 product. As a result I have decided to change up the look of the site a little (let me know if you like/hate it) and to begin posting some very preliminary information about SharePoint 2016.

First. We have a technical preview! Get it here.

Second, what info  is out there is all subject to change, but there is a lot even if it is incomplete right now. Here are a few links to get you started.

What’s new in SharePoint Server 2016 Installation and Deployment

Navigating List View Thresholds in SharePoint Server 2016 IT Preview

New and improved features in SharePoint Server 2016 IT Preview

Remember, ALL of this information is subject to change, but there is a lot of new stuff coming!


MS Ignite 2015 – Flying Cars Don’t Sound Cool Anymore

Day one of Ignite 2015 and I have to say I was a bit surprised at how low key the keynote presentations were. Don’t get me wrong. I wasn’t looking for a return of the patented Ballmer ‘Monkey Dance’. I know that current MS CEO, Satya Nadella, is inherently more reserved than Steve Ballmer. Really though, look at it, this is a BIG year. Microsoft just didn’t make me feel it.

This is some cool stuff! So why didn’t it make more impact? I think there are two reasons. First, Microsoft hasn’t been very quiet about these things. We knew about a lot of the coolest bits way before this week. Steve Jobs would have guarded this information like it was the U.S. Nuclear codes and sprung it on us with some fanfair, but Micrsoft has been too busy getting things done to bother with “controlling the message”. Second reason? Because flying cars don’t sound cool anymore.

Let me explain.

Flying cars have become a symbol of technologies that we’ve all thought about, that never seems to get to production. These concepts are always 5 to 10 years away and in the case of flying cars, everyone thought we would have them long before now. Every year you see a new story about someone who “finally” created a flying car and the news is met with…boredom. We’ve all seen the flying cars. On the morning news, on the Discovery channel, in 40 year old copies of Popular Mechanics, flying cars exist! They just suck, and we all know it. It isn’t the car that’s the problem. Take off and landing space, fuel economy, having drivers who wouldn’t kill each other, these are the real problems. Flying cars were an easy problem to solve; practical flying cars still elude us. But still we wonder.

Microsoft may be on the edge of giving us a boatload of flying cars. Phones that can legitimately be used as desktops. Management tools that work across cloud and on prem infrastructure. Tools for private cloud that can be scaled and managed elegantly. Useful (if still very limited) voice activated assistants for business. All cool stuff. We’ve just been so beaten down by the hype from past attempts we may be about to miss it when some of these things actually work outside of a demo.

I’m not a prophet, and I have never been a big Microsoft fanboy. I’m sure some of what they are bringing out this year won’t meet expectations. But everything I mentioned in the paragraph above has a real chance of actually being delivered within the next year. I just hope that when the first practical flying car comes out we actually notice.

A Bag of Databases

A while ago a co-worker of mine had a little problem with attaching a LOT of databases to a customers web application. He needed to do it several times and wanted a way to easily get any errors produced as each database attached. I put together a Powershell script to do the job and it made the tedious job a lot easier.

Now I don’t think it is likely you will have exactly that same need, but it turns out that several parts of the script could be useful for a lot of things so let’s talk about some of the useful ideas.

Getting a list of items from a CSV file

To make life easier I set up the script so that it could pull the names of the databases from a common separated value (CSV) file. In this case there was only one value I wanted to put from the file, so there weren’t a lot of commas involved and the format of the file was simple, here is an example:

ContentDB  <-- The first line of the file contains column names.

Of course my co-worker was dealing with a couple of hundred files so the list was longer, but you get the idea. So here is how we used this file.

If you put the 3 lines above in a text file named InputDBs.txt in a folder on the C drive named MountData you can use it like this:

$SQLInstance = "SQLSERVER"
$WebApp = ""
$InputCSV = "C:MountDataInputDBs.txt"
$DBNames = Import-csv $inputCSV

## Mount each DB in InputCSV
ForEach ($item in $DBNames){
Mount-SPContentDatabase –Name $item.ContentDB –WebApplication $WebApp -DatabaseServer $SQLInstance -Outvariable mountoutput -errorvariable mounterrors

The first two variables are obvious, we are setting the SQLINSTANCE to a variable so we can easily change it to use another instance in the future and the $WebApp is the Web application we are connecting the database to. $InputCSV is just the path to our file that contains all of the database names. Once we have that file we can read items out of it with

Import-csv $inputCSV

and pump them into our other variable


that we use in the next line

ForEach ($item in $DBNames){

Each line (except the first, which contains the column name) of the file is an “item” so if there are 2 database names the process would run twice. The first item would result with this line:

Mount-SPContentDatabase –Name $item.ContentDB –WebApplication $WebApp -DatabaseServer $SQLInstance -Outvariable mountoutput -errorvariable mounterrors

Would run with these values

Mount-SPContentDatabase –Name WSS_Content_DB1 –WebApplication -DatabaseServer SQLSERVER -Outvariable mountoutput -errorvariable mounterrors

The second pass would have these values:

Mount-SPContentDatabase –Name WSS_Content_DB2 –WebApplication -DatabaseServer SQLSERVER -Outvariable mountoutput -errorvariable mounterrors

Because the first “item” in the ContentDB column was WSS_Content_DB1 and the second was WSS_Content_DB2. Are you seeing the possibilities yet? For example we could eliminate the $Webapp variable and add a WebApp in our CSV file to attach each database to a different web app like this:

ContentDB,WebApp  <-- The first line of the file contains column names.

Mount-SPContentDatabase –Name $item.ContentDB –WebApplication $item.WebApp -DatabaseServer $SQLInstance -Outvariable mountoutput -errorvariable mounterrors

The same process can be used for lots of things, so get out there and find them.

So You Say You Want an Upgrade?

Today I am going to upgrade my pre-upgrade script. Nothing too dramatic and there are still plenty of ugly constructions in it that I refuse to touch for fear that I will lose months of my life polishing the details.

The major changes are redirecting the output within the script (see my previous entry about that) and adding an option to list all the webs hosted in the farm and listing what template they use. This can be really helpful in finding where missing templates may cause things to break. Like the Fab 40 templates, still, in 2014, *sigh*.


# Please login to your SharePoint server using an account that has permissions to run PowerShell Commands.
# Place the file InfoScript.txt into a directory on the server that hosts SharePoint Central Administration and rename it to InfoScript.ps1
# Open the SharePoint 2010 Management Shell and type:
# c:[directory where you placed the script]InfoScript2010.ps1
# The "Out-File -width 200" part of the command is to make the output wider to fit more information on each line
# Once the script has completed, please forward the output to your Rackspace contact via email.

add-pssnapin microsoft.sharepoint.powershell -ea 0

function OutRedirect

$scriptuser = whoami
write-output "InfoScript was run under account name","------------------------------------", $scriptuser 

write-output "Servers in farm, their upgrade status and version number (version is just for comparison)"
# Added bit to weed out SQL and email servers
Get-SPServer | Where-Object { $_.role -ne "invalid" } | Select Name, Role, NeedsUpgrade, Version | out-string -width 200
write-output ""
write-output "--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"
write-output "Web Apps in Farm and if they are using claims auth or not"

Get-SPWebApplication |select DisplayName, URL, @{Label = "Claims Enabled?"; Expression = {$_.UseClaimsAuthentication}} |out-string -width 200

write-output "SharePoint Farm Build number"
Get-SPFarm | Select BuildVersion | out-string -width 200

write-output ""
write-output "--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"
write-output "Solutions in Farm"
Get-SPSolution | select Displayname, deployed, DeployedWebApplications | out-string -width 200

write-output ""
write-output "--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"
write-output "Site Collections by DB"
Get-SPContentDatabase | %{Write-Output "`nDatabase: $($_.Name)"; ForEach($site in $_.sites){write-Output ("`t " + $site.url)}}| out-string -width 200

write-output ""
write-output "--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"
write-output "Database sizes"
Get-SPDatabase |Sort Name| select Name, @{Label = "DB Size in MB"; Expression = {"{0:N2} MB" -f ($_.DiskSizeRequired/1MB)}}, Type, Id | out-string -width 200

write-output ""
write-output "--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"
write-output "SiteCollection size estimates (very rough)"
Get-SPSite | Select URL, @{Label="Storage"; Expression={"{0:N2} MB" -f ($_.Usage.Storage/1048576)}} | out-string -width 200

write-output ""
write-output "--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"
write-output "AAM Info"
write-output ""
write-output "--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"
write-output "Features in Farm"
Get-SPFeature -Limit all | out-string -width 200

write-output ""
write-output "--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"
write-output "Templates in Farm"

Get-SPWebTemplate | out-string -width 200

write-output ""
write-output "--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"
write-output "Template USED in farm by web" " "

Write-Host -foregroundcolor yellow "The final step in this script will list every web (site or subsite)
in your farm along with the template used by that web.
If you have a large number of sites it might take some time to complete and use a lot of resources. 

All the other information collected by this script has already been placed in a file,
so if you answer no, only this step will be skipped."

$continue = Read-Host "Would you like to continue? (Y/N)"
if($continue -eq "Y")
get-spsite -limit all | get-spweb -limit all |select URL, @{Label = "Template"; Expression = { $_.WebTemplate}}, @{Label = "TemplateID"; Expression = { $_.WebTemplateID}} | out-string -width 200

$OutFile = Read-Host "Please enter the path (name you want for the file included) (ex. C:tempInfoOutput.txt)"
outRedirect|Out-File -width 200 $OutFile

Enjoy and have a happy holiday season!

A Quick PowerShell Tip (redirecting the output of a PowerShell script)

If you have been to this blog before you may have seen my SharePoint 2013 preupgradecheck script. One thing that always bothered me about that script was that I had to ask the user to redirect the output when they ran the script by using the out-file cmdlet, like this:

Open the SharePoint 2010 Management Shell and type:
c:[directory where you placed the script]InfoScript2010.ps1 | Out-File -width 200 c:InfoOutput.txt

I kept thinking there had to be a better way to redirect the output from within the script itself, but I never really took the time to come up with a solution until recently. After sitting and really thinking it over for a few minutes instead of just complaining I found a simple answer that I thought I would share here, even though it isn’t really about SharePoint.

A nice  feature in PowerShell is the function, simply put simply, a function is just a block of code that you have wrapped up so you can use it later in your script. For example:

function sayHello
write-output "Hello, how is your day?"

After creating this function in your script you can call it at any time by just using sayHello as a command and everything within the  brackets { } will execute. This is great for pieces of code that repeat, or that need to be run under different conditions, but it turns out it is also an easy way to redirect output. For example, if you have the function above in your code you can redirect the output to a file very simply.

sayHello|Out-File c:hello.txt

So with my preupgrade check as an example, I could just enclose the entire script inside a function called outRedirect and then pipe that into the file I want.

function outRedirect
(the entire script found here)

outRedirect|Out-File -width 200 c:InfoOutput.txt

As with most of my PowerShell advice, this isn’t exactly rocket science, but I like to share and I hope it is useful to you.

SQL and SharePoint

I have mentioned in previous blog entries that SQL is a pretty important part of SharePoint performance and stability. This is important because there are a few things about adjusting SQL for SharePoint that go counter to what I like to call “DBA Lore”. Database Administrators are professional specialists who have a spent a lot of time creating an unwritten set of recommendations for keeping servers running at peak efficiency. Much like wizards DBAs, are subtle and quick to anger when you try and meddle with their servers. SharePoint can be a little frustrating for these highly trained professionals because it requires a little special treatment and may break some of those unwritten rules.So let’s talk about some of those special needs.

SharePoint should have its own SQL server instance.

Most DBAs don’t argue against this in theory,  but in practice they don’t have a budget any larger than the rest of us. Economic concerns have made it a common practice to put as many databases as possible on a single instance, because each instance has a certain amount of overhead.Enter reason number one why SharePoint is a special case; it’s called the “Maxium Degree of Parallelism” or the MAXDOP option.The MAXDOP setting limits the number of processors that are used for the execution of a query with a parallel execution plan. In a system like SharePoint that tends to have a large number of queries, relative to the number of processors, running at the same time, a low MAXDOP setting is desirable. Essentially the value of 1 suppresses parallel plan generation making each query stay on the processor it starts with.  This SQL setting has been recommended with SharePoint for sometime now. In SharePoint 2013 it has gone from being a recommendation to a requirement. The MAXDOP setting can have a very negative impact on database queries that assume they will be allowed to run in parallel, so if they are hosted on the same instance as SharePoint performance will suffer.    If the MAXDOP setting isn’t a good reason for isolating SharePoint databases, then consider the fact that a SharePoint Server 2013 installation by default (basically just clicking through all the wizard options) creates 20 databases. These databases can be quite demanding on a server, and if they have to share with unrelated SQL data for resources in the same instance everything suffers.

SharePoint Databases Don’t Want Your Help

The rules are a little slippery in a few cases, but here is the general advice: Don’t run any SQL commands that query or manipulate data directly against SharePoint databases. That’s it. Don’t reorg, don’t reindex, don’t SHRINK DB’s, don’t do all the stuff normally associated with DB maintenance. Backups and DB checks are as far as you should go.

This goes double for changing the default permissions of the SQL service and admin accounts. Don’t take the db_creator and Security admin roles away from the account used to install SharePoint, don’t make the DBA’s account owner of all the databases and take the service accounts out of db_owner. DB checks and back it up, then walk away.

Finally, if your DBA’s have questions about the db types in SharePoint, how fast they grow, what recovery model they should use, all that stuff, then direct them to this link . This technet article is full of details they will hopefully find useful.

Remember SQL does all the hard work so SharePoint can make everything else look easy. It is a big part of your SharePoint equation so treat it right.


The Most Important PowerShell Snippet You Will See Today

Don’t worry about what it does, just cut and paste it.

New-Item -ItemType directory -Path $homeDocumentsWindowsPowerShell
Write-Output "Start-Transcript" | Out-File $PROFILE

Just kidding! This is a little snippet of PowerShell code that will set it up so that every time you launch PowerShell it will automatically create a transcript of the session. That way if something goes wrong or unexpectedly right you can look at the transcript later. It also means if a co-worker goes in and breaks stuff with PowerShell without telling you, there is a transcript of what they did.

Here is what it does:

New-Item -ItemType directory -Path $homeDocumentsWindowsPowerShell just creates a new directory in the users Documents folder called WindowsPowerShell.

Write-Output "Start-Transcript" | Out-File $PROFILE just writes the cmdlet Start-Transcript into a file named $PROFILE. PowerShell is hard wired to process this $PROFILE and run whatever commands are in it as a starts.

So that is it, easy but very useful.